## Physics Lab Report: Magnetic Fields

Physics Lab Report: Magnetic Fields

# Magnetic Fields

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO PERMANENT MAGNETS

1. Put two magnets on table
2. Face two same pole face each other
3. Show the direction of magnetic field
4. Find out they will attract or repel?
5. Put two magnets on table
6. Face two Unlike pole face each other
7. Show the direction of magnetic field
8. Find out they will attract or repel?
9. Draw and label a picture of the earth’s magnetic field.
10. Based on your picture explain how a compass works.
11. Which end of a compass needle would point toward the N pole of a bar magnet?

## Physics Lab Report: Magnetic Fields

Physics Lab Report: Magnetic Fields

# Magnetic Fields

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO PERMANENT MAGNETS

1. Put two magnets on table
2. Face two same pole face each other
3. Show the direction of magnetic field
4. Find out they will attract or repel?
5. Put two magnets on table
6. Face two Unlike pole face each other
7. Show the direction of magnetic field
8. Find out they will attract or repel?
9. Draw and label a picture of the earth’s magnetic field.
10. Based on your picture explain how a compass works.
11. Which end of a compass needle would point toward the N pole of a bar magnet?

## Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

# Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and refraction are two commonly observed optical properties of light. Whenever a light strikes the surface of some material at an angle, part of the wave is reflected and part is transmitted (or absorbed). The reflection of light rays from a plane surface such as a glass plate or a plane mirror is described by the law of reflection:
The angle of incidence (θi) is equal to the angle of reflection (θr).
These angles are measured from a line perpendicular or normal to the reflecting surface.

1. Reflection

## Glass Plate as a Mirror

1. Place a sheet of white paper on the pin board.
2. Draw a center line on white paper and Place the candle in front of mirror. [mirror should be perpendicular to the white paper]
3. Turn on the candle with a lighter
4. Draw the line from candle to mirror (normal Line).
5. Move your eye to the observing position so that you see a reflection of the candle in the mirror and try to put the dot on paper wherever you see the image. (right side)
6. Repeat # 4 from left side.
7. Remove the equipment from the paper.
8. Draw straight lines through the pair of points
9. Label the angles of incidence and reflection.
10. Measure these two angles

## Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

# Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and refraction are two commonly observed optical properties of light. Whenever a light strikes the surface of some material at an angle, part of the wave is reflected and part is transmitted (or absorbed). The reflection of light rays from a plane surface such as a glass plate or a plane mirror is described by the law of reflection:
The angle of incidence (θi) is equal to the angle of reflection (θr).
These angles are measured from a line perpendicular or normal to the reflecting surface.

1. Reflection

## Glass Plate as a Mirror

1. Place a sheet of white paper on the pin board.
2. Draw a center line on white paper and Place the candle in front of mirror. [mirror should be perpendicular to the white paper]
3. Turn on the candle with a lighter
4. Draw the line from candle to mirror (normal Line).
5. Move your eye to the observing position so that you see a reflection of the candle in the mirror and try to put the dot on paper wherever you see the image. (right side)
6. Repeat # 4 from left side.
7. Remove the equipment from the paper.
8. Draw straight lines through the pair of points
9. Label the angles of incidence and reflection.
10. Measure these two angles

## Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

# Simple Pendulum

## Discussion and review

A pendulum is a weight hanging from a fixed point so that it swings freely under the combined forces of gravity and momentum. A simple pendulum consists of a heavy pendulum bob (of mass M) suspended from a light string. It is generally assumed that the mass of the string is negligible. If the bob moves away from the vertical to some angle θ, and is released so that the pendulum swings within a vertical plane, the period of the pendulum is given as:  T = 2π
Table 1: contents of Formula

 symbol Description T Period of a pendulum to complete one cycle L Length of string g Acceleration due to gravity: 9.81 m/s2

Part 1: changing the amplitude
Before beginning, find a solid support from which to hang the pendulum. Ideally, there should be a wall close to the support so the protractor and tape measure can be attached for recording the pendulum’s movements. A bathroom or kitchen towel bar is ideal for this purpose.
A support similar to that shown in Figure 3 can be constructed and placed on a narrow shelf or tabletop. It is important not only that the support allows the pendulum to hang freely, but also that you are able to read and record measurements from the protractor and tape measure. Do not allow the pendulum string to touch anything or be obstructed from any direction. The pendulum apparatus must also be sturdy enough so that it does not bend, flex, or move in any manner as this will introduce error into the experiment. See Figure 4 for an example setup with the pendulum bob hanging from an over-the-door hanger.

1. Attach a small plastic bag to the spring scale.
2. Add washers to the plastic bag until the scale measures approximately 25 g total. The filled bag will hereafter be referred to as the bob. Record this value as “Mass of bob” in the place provided in Data Table 1.
3. Measure a piece of string that is approximately 120 cm in length. Tie the string around the top of the bag so that the washers cannot fall out. Suspend the bob from this string so that it measures exactly 1 m (100 cm) between where it attaches to the support and the bottom of the bob.
4. Use tape to affix the protractor behind where the string is attached to the support so you can measure the pendulum’s amplitude in degrees. The center hole in the protractor should be located directly behind the pivot point. The string should hang straight down so that the string lines up with the 90o mark on the protractor. See Figure 4 as an example of the correct placement of the protractor.
5. Stretch the measuring tape horizontally and use tape to affix it to the wall or door so that its 50-cm mark is directly behind the bob at rest.
6. Displace the bob out to the 5o mark and hold it there. Then observe the bob’s location during its first cycle as it swings relative to the tape measure and record the distance in centimeters as “Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement)” in Data Table 1.
7. With a stopwatch ready to begin timing, release (do not push) the bob and begin timing how long it takes the bob to move through five complete cycles. Record this first trial time in Data Table 1 for Trial 1. Repeat the procedure for the second and third trials. Then average the three trial times to calculate the average period for one cycle, and record this value in Data Table 1.
8. Repeat this procedure, releasing the bobs at 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30°, and recording the results for each of the angles in Data Table 1.

Length of string: _____ cm = _____ m          Mass of bob: _____ g = _____kg

Data Table 1: Trial values at varying degrees

 Placement of BobDegrees Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement) cm Trial 1 (s) 5 cycles Trial 2 (s) 5 cycles Trial 3 (s)5 cycles Avg. Time (s)5 cycles Period 1 cycle 5 o 10 o 15 o 20 o 25 o 30 o

IMPORTANT: The pendulum must swing without obstruction and should not strike the background as it swings.
Part 2: changing the mass

1. Add more weights to the bag until the mass has doubled to approximately 50 g. Record this value as “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 2.
2. Repeat the procedure used in Part 1 using only a 10o amplitude for the starting point of the Record the data in Data Table 2.

Length of string: ________ cm = _______ m Amplitude: 10°
Data Table 2: Trial values for bob masses

 Bob weight (g) Bob weight (kg) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period g g

Part 3: changing the length of string

1. Remove the weights until the original mass used in Part 1 (approximately 25 g) is inside the bag. Record this “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 3.
2. Put the original bob containing the washers back onto the pendulum. Use a 10amplitude and perform three trials each with successively shorter lengths of string. For example, 1 m, 0.75 m, etc. Record the time in seconds into the columns labeled “Trial #1, 2, or 3 s” in Data Table

Mass of bob: ________ g = _______ kg Amplitude: 10o
Data Table 3: Trial values for string length

 Length (m) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period .25 .50 .75

Part    4:         Calculations

1. Solve the pendulum formula for g using the values derived from this experiment. Equation 3 will be used in calculating “g.” Substitute the average data for time and the length of the pendulum into the formula. Calculate to three significant figures. Then calculate your percentage error as compared to the accepted value for g, which is 9.81 m/s2. See Equation 4.

Equation 3:
Where:

• g = acceleration due to gravity
• = time in seconds
• L = length of pendulum string in meters

Note: If you get very large errors, such as 20% or more, in this lab, double-check your calculations.
Equation 4:
% error = experimental value – theoretical value × 100
theoretical value

## Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

# Simple Pendulum

## Discussion and review

A pendulum is a weight hanging from a fixed point so that it swings freely under the combined forces of gravity and momentum. A simple pendulum consists of a heavy pendulum bob (of mass M) suspended from a light string. It is generally assumed that the mass of the string is negligible. If the bob moves away from the vertical to some angle θ, and is released so that the pendulum swings within a vertical plane, the period of the pendulum is given as:  T = 2π
Table 1: contents of Formula

 symbol Description T Period of a pendulum to complete one cycle L Length of string g Acceleration due to gravity: 9.81 m/s2

Part 1: changing the amplitude
Before beginning, find a solid support from which to hang the pendulum. Ideally, there should be a wall close to the support so the protractor and tape measure can be attached for recording the pendulum’s movements. A bathroom or kitchen towel bar is ideal for this purpose.
A support similar to that shown in Figure 3 can be constructed and placed on a narrow shelf or tabletop. It is important not only that the support allows the pendulum to hang freely, but also that you are able to read and record measurements from the protractor and tape measure. Do not allow the pendulum string to touch anything or be obstructed from any direction. The pendulum apparatus must also be sturdy enough so that it does not bend, flex, or move in any manner as this will introduce error into the experiment. See Figure 4 for an example setup with the pendulum bob hanging from an over-the-door hanger.

1. Attach a small plastic bag to the spring scale.
2. Add washers to the plastic bag until the scale measures approximately 25 g total. The filled bag will hereafter be referred to as the bob. Record this value as “Mass of bob” in the place provided in Data Table 1.
3. Measure a piece of string that is approximately 120 cm in length. Tie the string around the top of the bag so that the washers cannot fall out. Suspend the bob from this string so that it measures exactly 1 m (100 cm) between where it attaches to the support and the bottom of the bob.
4. Use tape to affix the protractor behind where the string is attached to the support so you can measure the pendulum’s amplitude in degrees. The center hole in the protractor should be located directly behind the pivot point. The string should hang straight down so that the string lines up with the 90o mark on the protractor. See Figure 4 as an example of the correct placement of the protractor.
5. Stretch the measuring tape horizontally and use tape to affix it to the wall or door so that its 50-cm mark is directly behind the bob at rest.
6. Displace the bob out to the 5o mark and hold it there. Then observe the bob’s location during its first cycle as it swings relative to the tape measure and record the distance in centimeters as “Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement)” in Data Table 1.
7. With a stopwatch ready to begin timing, release (do not push) the bob and begin timing how long it takes the bob to move through five complete cycles. Record this first trial time in Data Table 1 for Trial 1. Repeat the procedure for the second and third trials. Then average the three trial times to calculate the average period for one cycle, and record this value in Data Table 1.
8. Repeat this procedure, releasing the bobs at 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30°, and recording the results for each of the angles in Data Table 1.

Length of string: _____ cm = _____ m          Mass of bob: _____ g = _____kg

Data Table 1: Trial values at varying degrees

 Placement of BobDegrees Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement) cm Trial 1 (s) 5 cycles Trial 2 (s) 5 cycles Trial 3 (s)5 cycles Avg. Time (s)5 cycles Period 1 cycle 5 o 10 o 15 o 20 o 25 o 30 o

IMPORTANT: The pendulum must swing without obstruction and should not strike the background as it swings.
Part 2: changing the mass

1. Add more weights to the bag until the mass has doubled to approximately 50 g. Record this value as “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 2.
2. Repeat the procedure used in Part 1 using only a 10o amplitude for the starting point of the Record the data in Data Table 2.

Length of string: ________ cm = _______ m Amplitude: 10°
Data Table 2: Trial values for bob masses

 Bob weight (g) Bob weight (kg) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period g g

Part 3: changing the length of string

1. Remove the weights until the original mass used in Part 1 (approximately 25 g) is inside the bag. Record this “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 3.
2. Put the original bob containing the washers back onto the pendulum. Use a 10amplitude and perform three trials each with successively shorter lengths of string. For example, 1 m, 0.75 m, etc. Record the time in seconds into the columns labeled “Trial #1, 2, or 3 s” in Data Table

Mass of bob: ________ g = _______ kg Amplitude: 10o
Data Table 3: Trial values for string length

 Length (m) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period .25 .50 .75

Part    4:         Calculations

1. Solve the pendulum formula for g using the values derived from this experiment. Equation 3 will be used in calculating “g.” Substitute the average data for time and the length of the pendulum into the formula. Calculate to three significant figures. Then calculate your percentage error as compared to the accepted value for g, which is 9.81 m/s2. See Equation 4.

Equation 3:
Where:

• g = acceleration due to gravity
• = time in seconds
• L = length of pendulum string in meters

Note: If you get very large errors, such as 20% or more, in this lab, double-check your calculations.
Equation 4:
% error = experimental value – theoretical value × 100
theoretical value

## Physics Lab Report: Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Physics Lab Report: Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

# Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 1 and 2 of this experiment.
Click Here
Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

1. Concave mirror do > 2f

do = 10            di = ………..   inverted or uprigh
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
Concave mirror do < f
do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 3 and 4 of this experiment.
Click Here
Find out the image characteristic for each situation

1. Convex lens do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 1              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
M = …………
Convex lens do > 2 f
do = 12            di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
M = …………

# Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 1 and 2 of this experiment.
Click Here
Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

1. Concave mirror do > 2f

do = 10            di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
Concave mirror do < f
do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 3 and 4 of this experiment.
Click Here
Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

1. Convex lens do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 1              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
M = …………
Convex lens do > 2 f
do = 12            di = ………..   inverted or upright
ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual
M = …………

## Physics Lab Report: Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Physics Lab Report: Resistance and Ohm’s Law

# Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Resistance Measurements
The resistance is identifying by the color code (Rcode). You can find the color code table and the figure example below.

 Color Number Multiplier Tolerance Black 0 1=100 Brown 1 101 Red 2 102 Orange 3 103 Yellow 4 104 Green 5 105 Blue 6 106 Violet 7 107 Gray 8 108 White 9 109 Gold 10-1 5% Silver 10-2 10% None 20%

## 2. Ohm’s Law

Equipment:
4          AA battery holder
4          AA battery (1.5 volts)
10        75 Ω resistors
1          DC analog ammeter
1          digital voltmeter
-Set up a DC series circuit with 75 Ω the Battery and the “wire wound” resistor provided.
-Connect an ammeter in series with the resistor and a voltmeter in parallel with the resistor.
-read the Ammeter and Voltmeter and Right down the value in First Row of Table.

 Current I (ammeter value) Voltage V (voltmeter Value) I = V = I = V = I = V = I = V =

– Add Another battery in series to frist one and again try to read the numbers voltmeter and ammeter and write down the numbers in second table.

## Batteries in Series

-repeat the experiment for 3 batteries and 4 batteries in series and for each situation read the value for ammeter and voltmeter and write down the value in 3th and 4th row of table .
-Plot V vs I. (V vertical and I horizontal) and find the slop of graph (Y4-Y1) / (X4-X1). this number should be close to 75Ω.
-Calculate the percentage error. (theoretical number is 75.

## Separation of an Acid; Base; and Neutral Compound by Extraction (Lab Report)

Separation of an Acid; Base; and Neutral Compound by Extraction (Lab Report)
Required

• Purpose,
• Theory,
• Procedure,
• Data and calculations,
• Results, and
• Conclusion.
• Don’t forget to watch the videos.
• Everything is in the uploaded file.

## Separation of an Acid; Base; and Neutral Compound by Extraction (Lab Report)

Separation of an Acid; Base; and Neutral Compound by Extraction (Lab Report)
Required

• Purpose,
• Theory,
• Procedure,
• Data and calculations,
• Results, and
• Conclusion.
• Don’t forget to watch the videos.
• Everything is in the uploaded file.